Overview Effect

Third Edition of The Overview Effect is Now Available

Written by Appearance on “The Space Show”, Apollo, the Dragon, and the Overview Effect on Thursday, 09 October 2014. Posted in Overview Effect

The third edition of The Overview Effect; Space Exploration and Human Evolution is now available. It includes new interviews with astronauts and with future space explorers like Sir Richard Branson and our own Loretta and George Whitesides.

“Space travel needs a new birth, and if we can tap into the desire to go into space, incredible things can come from it.”

Sir Richard Branson, founder of the Virgin Group, including Virgin Galactic

“The Overview Effect is an important book in helping people see that your attitude does change when you see the Earth from the space perspective –an experience that seems to be an almost universal phenomenon.”

Edgar Mitchell, Apollo 14 astronaut, founder of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, and founding member of the Overview Institute

“It is a dynamic, crystal-clear view that just glows, and that doesn't come across in the pictures and videos. You feel more a part of it when you are looking at it that way. So it is a reaffirmation of what a beautiful and special place the Earth is.”

Nicole Stott, NASA astronaut

The Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution is now available for order at http://www.aiaa.org and pre-order at amazon.com, http://amzn.to/1rIDASK

A portion of all royalties for The Overview Effect will go to the Overview Institute, the leading organization dedicated to understanding and disseminating the message of the Overview Effect: www.overviewinstitute.org

Metaphor, Myth and Meaning: Reflections on Rereading The Overview Effect, Part III

Written by Alex Howerton on Saturday, 08 February 2014. Posted in Overview Effect

In Chapter 3, “An Overview of the Spaceflight Experience,” White discusses metaphor as a method used by the astronauts to attempt to explain their spaceflight experiences. Launching from the ideas of Julian Jaynes in his book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, White concludes that “one result of space exploration is that language will grow as spaceflight is described more frequently.”

White is spot on here. Metaphor is powerful. It is a way for the human mind to strive to express something that cannot be grasped directly, either by the speaker or the listener. In essence, it creates reality by indicating a relationship that was hitherto unrecognized, or even existent. Spaceflight, for example, is a raw experience, but what does it mean? Like all life experiences, it does not have one meaning for all time, but changes in context over time and with different astronauts. White makes the point that “memory of it [the spaceflight experience] acts as a time-release capsule, emitting feelings, insights, thoughts, and ideas over the years after it has occurred.”

White then goes on to describe the active legend-building that orbited the early astronauts. “Societies need heroes who are specially selected to undergo hardship and danger on the frontiers of civilization. Space is today’s frontier, and the astronauts and cosmonauts have become today’s heroes, people who have extraordinary experiences unknown to others in the society, doing something that requires uncommon bravery.”

Deeds are the germ of legend, and legend is the fount of myth. And metaphor is the language of myth. We moderns hear ancient myths, and instantly think “how preposterous,” or “how quaint.” We have even morphed the word “myth” to be synonymous, in some contexts, with “lie”. We constantly feel the need to debunk or bust myths, as if they are some insidious plague of which we must rid ourselves. But that is because we are losing our sense of metaphor, and what it is trying to do in helping shape our reality, and give it meaning.

While we are eschewing myth in one sphere, we are actively building it in another. The early astronauts were indeed our heroes, the strong-willed warriors with “The Right Stuff” who would battle the Cold War by proxy. Even the very name “astronaut” is an evocative metaphor – “sailor of the stars.”

But the context of myth changes over time, and the metaphor which once served so well has now fallen into disrepute. Those noble heroes of that bygone era, the “Space Age,” are now one more relic of the Military Industrial Complex. We don’t need fighter pilots in space anymore – the nature of conflict has changed, and the anticipated space war is probably not going to happen any time soon. We have even gone so far in our popular culture as to parody that “right stuff” mythos in movies like Armageddon and Space Cowboys. Many view the early space program as a dead end, and now say things like “Why go to space until we solve all our problems here on Earth first? The space program is just an elitist escapist fantasy that can do nothing to help the planet.”

But that is the result of our modern myth-busting proclivities. Just because the cultural terrain has shifted does not diminish the accomplishments or worth of those early space explorers, those heroes. The valuable and worthy activity now is to actively engage with our space explorers, to interact with them to reach for new, fresh metaphors that transform our understanding of space from something to conquer to viewing it more as an extension of our environment, which is precisely what it is. The role of the space explorers has transformed from conquering heroes to dedicated, focused achievers of missions, precisely the same shift in dynamics we have seen in many frontier contexts. This in no way diminishes the stature of the early space pioneers, but rather places them in the mythic context of blazing the trail and making it possible for more of us to go, when the opportunities present themselves.

White then goes on to ask whether spaceflight is a spiritual experience. “Spiritual” is now one of those loaded words in our culture, along with “religion” and God” that mean something different to just about everybody who uses them, and are subject to our myth-busting propensities. But space exploration definitely does have an effect on humans that take us beyond our normal context. The renowned mythologist Joseph Campbell discussed the transformative power of metaphor to reach for deeper insights in his book The Flight of the Wild Gander. He tells us that the philosopher Immanuel Kant “offers a four-term analogy (“a” is to “b” as “c” is to “x”), which points not to an incomplete resemblance of two things but to a complete resemblance of two relationships between quite dissimilar things…. Mythological, theological, metaphysical analogies, in other words, do not point indirectly to an only partially understood knowable term, but directly to a relationship between to terms, the one empirical, the other metaphysical; the latter being, absolutely and forever and from every conceivable human standpoint, unknowable.”

Space is that inconceivable unknowable metaphysical condition, that astronauts have experienced directly, albeit from their limited human perspectives, and are continually reaching to find the right metaphors, the right Kantian relationship, to express to the rest of us, to give us a sense, as White points out, of what is was like. That metaphysical reality can never be fully apprehended or understood by even those who experienced it. The astronauts need us as much as we need them, so we can mutually push our communal language to find new metaphors, new ways to understand and communicate that ultimately ineffable experience.

That experience definitely has a spiritual quality to it, in that it compels all of us, the astronauts and the ground observers, to reach beyond ordinarily-experienced reality to a metaphysical sense of participating in something greater than ourselves. As White points out, for some astronauts, that translated into achieving the goals of the mission to the best of their ability, with no attention paid to what is commonly considered “spiritual.” Yet the challenge of the experience called to the fore that response from those individuals which would otherwise not have come to fruition. Space calls out the best in us, and it is our constant challenge to grapple with the shortcomings of our language to strive to create new metaphors which can lead us to a greater sense of context, meaning and myth, as we struggle to understand our place in the universe.

 

Metaphor, Myth and Meaning: Reflections on Rereading The Overview Effect, Part III

Written by Reflections on Rereading The Overview Effect, Part 1 on Tuesday, 21 January 2014. Posted in Overview Effect

In Chapter 3, “An Overview of the Spaceflight Experience,” White discusses metaphor as a method used by the astronauts to attempt to explain their spaceflight experiences. Launching from the ideas of Julian Jaynes in his book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, White concludes that “one result of space exploration is that language will grow as spaceflight is described more frequently.”

White is spot on here. Metaphor is powerful. It is a way for the human mind to strive to express something that cannot be grasped directly, either by the speaker or the listener. In essence, it creates reality by indicating a relationship that was hitherto unrecognized, or even existent. Spaceflight, for example, is a raw experience, but what does it mean? Like all life experiences, it does not have one meaning for all time, but changes in context over time and with different astronauts. White makes the point that “memory of it [the spaceflight experience] acts as a time-release capsule, emitting feelings, insights, thoughts, and ideas over the years after it has occurred.”

White then goes on to describe the active legend-building that orbited the early astronauts. “Societies need heroes who are specially selected to undergo hardship and danger on the frontiers of civilization. Space is today’s frontier, and the astronauts and cosmonauts have become today’s heroes, people who have extraordinary experiences unknown to others in the society, doing something that requires uncommon bravery.”

Deeds are the germ of legend, and legend is the fount of myth. And metaphor is the language of myth. We moderns hear ancient myths, and instantly think “how preposterous,” or “how quaint.” We have even morphed the word “myth” to be synonymous, in some contexts, with “lie”. We constantly feel the need to debunk or bust myths, as if they are some insidious plague of which we must rid ourselves. But that is because we are losing our sense of metaphor, and what it is trying to do in helping shape our reality, and give it meaning.

While we are eschewing myth in one sphere, we are actively building it in another. The early astronauts were indeed our heroes, the strong-willed warriors with “The Right Stuff” who would battle the Cold War by proxy. Even the very name “astronaut” is an evocative metaphor – “sailor of the stars.”

But the context of myth changes over time, and the metaphor which once served so well has now fallen into disrepute. Those noble heroes of that bygone era, the “Space Age,” are now one more relic of the Military Industrial Complex. We don’t need fighter pilots in space anymore – the nature of conflict has changed, and the anticipated space war is probably not going to happen any time soon. We have even gone so far in our popular culture as to parody that “right stuff” mythos in movies like Armageddon and Space Cowboys. Many view the early space program as a dead end, and now say things like “Why go to space until we solve all our problems here on Earth first? The space program is just an elitist escapist fantasy that can do nothing to help the planet.”

But that is the result of our modern myth-busting proclivities. Just because the cultural terrain has shifted does not diminish the accomplishments or worth of those early space explorers, those heroes. The valuable and worthy activity now is to actively engage with our space explorers, to interact with them to reach for new, fresh metaphors that transform our understanding of space from something to conquer to viewing it more as an extension of our environment, which is precisely what it is. The role of the space explorers has transformed from conquering heroes to dedicated, focused achievers of missions, precisely the same shift in dynamics we have seen in many frontier contexts. This in no way diminishes the stature of the early space pioneers, but rather places them in the mythic context of blazing the trail and making it possible for more of us to go, when the opportunities present themselves.

White then goes on to ask whether spaceflight is a spiritual experience. “Spiritual” is now one of those loaded words in our culture, along with “religion” and God” that mean something different to just about everybody who uses them, and are subject to our myth-busting propensities. But space exploration definitely does have an effect on humans that take us beyond our normal context. The renowned mythologist Joseph Campbell discussed the transformative power of metaphor to reach for deeper insights in his book The Flight of the Wild Gander. He tells us that the philosopher Immanuel Kant “offers a four-term analogy (“a” is to “b” as “c” is to “x”), which points not to an incomplete resemblance of two things but to a complete resemblance of two relationships between quite dissimilar things…. Mythological, theological, metaphysical analogies, in other words, do not point indirectly to an only partially understood knowable term, but directly to a relationship between to terms, the one empirical, the other metaphysical; the latter being, absolutely and forever and from every conceivable human standpoint, unknowable.”

Space is that inconceivable unknowable metaphysical condition, that astronauts have experienced directly, albeit from their limited human perspectives, and are continually reaching to find the right metaphors, the right Kantian relationship, to express to the rest of us, to give us a sense, as White points out, of what is was like. That metaphysical reality can never be fully apprehended or understood by even those who experienced it. The astronauts need us as much as we need them, so we can mutually push our communal language to find new metaphors, new ways to understand and communicate that ultimately ineffable experience.

That experience definitely has a spiritual quality to it, in that it compels all of us, the astronauts and the ground observers, to reach beyond ordinarily-experienced reality to a metaphysical sense of participating in something greater than ourselves. As White points out, for some astronauts, that translated into achieving the goals of the mission to the best of their ability, with no attention paid to what is commonly considered “spiritual.” Yet the challenge of the experience called to the fore that response from those individuals which would otherwise not have come to fruition. Space calls out the best in us, and it is our constant challenge to grapple with the shortcomings of our language to strive to create new metaphors which can lead us to a greater sense of context, meaning and myth, as we struggle to understand our place in the universe.

 

Appearance on “The Space Show”

Written by Frank White on Sunday, 11 November 2012. Posted in Overview Institute, Overview Effect

Over Veteran’s Day weekend, I was honored to appear on The Space Show, hosted by Dr. David Livingston. If you have never listened to the program, you should give it a try. It is online at www.thespaceshow.com. David brings in a variety of great guests from the space community, and he is a thoughtful and informed interviewer. I had not appeared since the founding of the Overview Institute, when I appeared with my colleagues, David Beaver and Alex Howerton.

This was a wonderful opportunity to bring people up to date on the progress of the Institute, as well as the upcoming world premiere of the film “Overview,” the revision of The Overview Effect for a third edition, and my work with Space Synapse, a company that is devoted to communicating the Overview Effect message through a variety of media.

Listeners sent in a number of emails and made some perceptive phone calls. Bob Krone, provost of the Kepler Space Institute (KSI), emailed to remind us that I have developed a course on the Overview Effect for KSI, and that they have recently started a space philosophy journal.

I want to thank David Livingston for inviting me on his program, and my all veterans (including my father and grandfather) for their service. My hope is that, as more people hear the message of the Overview Effect, we will have fewer wars, but we should continue to honor those who gave of themselves for us.

To listen to our discussion, click here to download the audio file.

Why Go to Space At All? Part I — The Vision

Written by Alex Howerton on Monday, 17 September 2012. Posted in Overview Effect

Adapted from the book Free Space — Real Alternatives for Reaching Outer Space, Loompanics, 1995

Space exploration and development is exciting! It is easy to become absorbed in the details, the discoveries, the adventure, and forget why we began sucha quest in the first place. If we are ever to reach space as a civilization, it is imperative to understand the minutiae, the nuts and bolts of how it is done.  It is, however, no less important to examine why we want to go, what we intend to accomplish, what our hopes and dreams are upon achieving our goals.

I embarked on my quest toward a a spacefaring civilization to fulfill a personal vision.  I have, from my earliest memories, loved the idea of space. I have always marveled at science fiction, and in eighth-grade science class, where I was racking up a solid C average, I achieved A pluses for the two weeks we concentrated on space.

As I grew into adulthood, other interests absorbed me, and space studies slid to the back burner. Then, in 1983, I participated in a seminar entitled “2013: the World 30 Years from Now.” The task on the first day of the seminar was to envision the state of the world in that future time. On the second day, we had to figure out how to bring it about.

With a fellow attendee I was assigned to go into a darkened room, close my eyes, and relate my vision of the future. Upon shutting my eyes, a fully-articulated vision leapt into my imagination. I saw a re-greened Earth, dedicated to agriculture and environmental parks. There were perhaps six large cities on the whole planet, mainly distribution and collection centers for the solar system’s economy. The cities were built downward, into the Earth, with no eye-jarring artificial structures to assail the senses.  Ground transportation was achieved by means of magnetic strips between destinations. Vehicles were encoded with their destinations, much like bar-coding, then glided along the steps at tremendous speeds. Since every vehicle was locked onto the strips and traveling at uniform speed, there were no accidents. Power was provided by clean-burning hydrogen fusion and solar power satellites.

My mind then flew to the Moon.  It was one massive industrial park.  Every conceivable industry was represented and allowed to prosper in a free and open market. The goods and services produced there were shipped all over the solar system. The Moon’s far side was reserved for pure science and astronomy.

I saw great ships plying the pathways of the solar system, visiting the colonies of Mars and beyond, bringing back valuable resources from the nether regions, enriching everyone. Beautiful pleasure yachts powered by solar sail gracefully wandered about the spatial sea.  Huge free-floating space resorts supplied every kind of diversion, from flying under one’s own power, to all kinds of space sports, to discreetly-appointed zero-g love nests.

The outer worlds of Europa, Titan, and others were being explored for organic matter and even life, while tiny robots of nano-technological origin set about terraforming the worlds where no life previously existed, yet which would be useful to humanity.

A great power generator was in full operation around stately Jupiter, producing energy from Io’s interaction with the great planet’s magnetosphere. Automated probes with the most advanced hydrogen-scoop and antimatter engines were forging their way to the nearest stellar neighbors to initiate a first reconnaissance. The whole neighborhood of the Sun was bustling and thriving with human activity.

I had not heard of the Overview Effect when I experienced that vision — indeed, Frank had not yet written the book. But in retrospect, I did have a proto “Overview Effect” moment at that seminar. That is why, once I finally read the book, the idea resonated so deeply within me.

The Overview Effect is the unifying principle which gives a sense of unity and purpose to our current seemingly chaotic cultural state.  Just as in Chaos Theory, order seems to break down at an increasing rate, until a strange attractor enters the picture, and a new dynamic equilibrium is achieved. The idea of the Overview Effect is just such a strange attractor.

The current news about SpaceX’s successful resupply mission to the International Space Station and the announcement by Planetary Resources of the intention to mine an asteroid may seem to most people to have come out of the blue, but these ideas have been percolating for many years, even decades, and are now emerging, just when they apparently seem to be needed the most.

We are witnessing and participating in the birth of cosmic consciousness, not just as an abstract idea, but as a practical program of action, an alternative to the standard methods of global problem-solving. This is the true power of the Overview Effect, and I am proud that my vision of three decades ago has now found a home with the Overview Institute.